Dating Rand McNally Gas Station Road Maps including Map Codes
Harry Mathias Gousha, a sales executive for Rand McNally, left that H.M. Gousha Map Company was acquired by the Times Mirror Company in , .. the Gough Map, dating to about , is the oldest known road map of Great Britain. In cases when the year of publication was not shown on the cover or in the legend, map companies put date codes at the bottom of the main map. The table . Library: The Newberry Library [non-circulating]. Location: Special Collections 4th floor. Call Number: Vert no. 2 (PrCt) Text me this call number. Copy: 1.
The Turin Papyrus Map is sometimes characterized as the earliest known road map, drawn around BC, it depicts routes along dry river beds through a mining region east of Thebes in Ancient Egypt. The Dura-Europos Route map is the oldest known map of Europe preserved in its original form and it is a fragment of a map drawn onto a leather portion of a shield by a Roman soldier in c.
It depicts several towns along the northwest coast of the Black Sea, the Tabula Peutingeriana, a copy of a scroll originally dating to about AD, plots the extent of the Cursus publicus, the Roman road network that ran from Europe and North Africa to West Asia.
It is highly schematic, compressing the Mediterranean Sea to a sliver, the Gough Map, dating to aboutis the oldest known road map of Great Britain. Gousha was founded in by former Rand McNally employees, general Drafting was founded in These three companies produced most of the eight billion free maps handed out at American filling stations over a period of about to The practice of offering free maps diminished considerably in the s, the first Michelin map was produced in With the rise of GPS navigation and other maps in the 21st century.
An alternative to, and in ways the precursor of the road map, was the itinerarium. The Tabula Peutingeriana, mentioned above, is in effect an itinerarium in visual form, Road maps come in many shapes, sizes and scales.
Small, single-page maps may be used to give an overview of a regions major routes and features, folded maps can offer greater detail covering a large region. Electronic maps typically present a dynamically generated display of a region, with its scale, features, highway maps generally give an overview of major routes within a medium to large region ranging from a few dozen to a few thousand miles or kilometers.
Street maps usually cover an area of a few miles or kilometers within a city or extended metropolitan area 6. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis.
It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late to earlyin a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan.
The Axis advance halted in when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, inthe Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During and the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies.
World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts.
Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 Septemberbeginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later.
The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 Julyor even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September Others follow the British historian A. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 Augustrather than the formal surrender of Japan 7. Petroleum industry — The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting, and marketing of petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline, Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, synthetic fragrances, and plastics.
The industry is divided into three major components, upstream, midstream and downstream. Midstream operations are included in the downstream category. Petroleum is vital to many industries, and is of importance to the maintenance of industrial civilization in its current configuration, and thus is a critical concern for many nations.
Other geographic regions consumption patterns are as follows, South and Central America, Africa, the world consumes 30 billion barrels of oil per year, with developed nations being the largest consumers. Petroleum is a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations and it consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds.
It is generally accepted that oil is formed mostly from the carbon rich remains of ancient plankton after exposure to heat, Petroleum in an unrefined state has been utilized by humans for over years. Oil in general has been used since early history to keep fires ablaze. Its importance to the world economy evolved slowly, with oil used for lighting in the 19th century and wood.TRUCKING 101 Tips for new drivers. Tracking your route and using a road atlas.
The Industrial Revolution generated an increasing need for energy which was met mainly by coal, Imperial Russia produced 3, tons of oil in and doubled its output by mid-century. Batum is renamed to Batumi inat the turn of the 20th century, Imperial Russias output of oil, almost entirely from the Apsheron Peninsula, accounted for half of the worlds production and dominated international markets.
Nearly small refineries operated in the suburbs of Baku byas a side effect of these early developments, the Apsheron Peninsula emerged as the worlds oldest legacy of oil pollution and environmental negligence. InBaku the first ever well drilled with percussion tools to a depth of 21 meters for oil exploration, inLudvig Nobel and his Branobel company revolutionized oil transport by commissioning the first oil tanker and launching it on the Caspian Sea.
Newberry Library — The Newberry Library is an independent research library, specializing in the humanities and located in Chicago, Illinois, that has been free and open to the public since Its collections encompass a variety of related to the history and cultural production of Western Europe.
Additional public services are offered through exhibitions, meet-the-author lectures, adult education seminars, Newberry died at sea inwhile on a trip to France. He included in his will a provision of funds for the creation of a public library should his daughters die without heirs. Without much direction and without its founders personal collection as a foundation, the Newberrys first librarian, William Frederick Poole, was a major figure in the library world when he came to the Newberry.
Poole saw the Newberry as a canvas on which he could project his ideas. In it was located at 90 La Salle Street, in at Ontario Street, the present building, designed by Poole and architect Henry Ives Cobb, opened in It is located at 60 West Walton Street, across from Washington Square and it is a structure in the Spanish Romanesque architectural style, built of Connecticut granite.
Poole and Cobb feuded bitterly over their different visions for the library building, pooles influence with the librarys trustees coerced Cobb to temper the grand staircase he had envisioned and to accommodate open shelving.
Over time, however, the open shelving would put too much strain on the Newberrys staff and the security of its collections, Poole served as Newberry librarian until his death in Under his leadership, the library built broad reference collections that would be useful to many different Chicagoans, especially professionals, the Newberrys medical department, created inis an example of this emphasis.
Poole also steered the Newberry toward the acquisition of materials for use by professional scholars. Over manuscript maps and 2, manuscript map reproductions are described in the NLCC.
Ayer Manuscript Map Collection includes 30 portolan charts and atlases of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Cartes Marines Manuscript Map Collection of maps of French possessions around the world ca.
The Karpinski, Hulbert, and Ayer photostat collections include 1, reproductions of manuscript maps of the world and the Americas.
Originally compiled between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, the originals are held by archives in Paris, London, Madrid, Seville, and Lisbon. See the Karpinski guides and shelf lists in the map reading room. M5and the Paul Carles research collection of the history of the French marine, which includes hundreds of early prints and manuscript tracings of maps not cataloged, but see partial checklist shelved as Map Ref folio Z Ayer Collection documents the discovery and exploration of the Americas.
To date, the online catalog describes over 6, Ayer printed maps, manuscript maps, and atlases. Baskes Collection of more than 19, volumes includes thousands of atlases and a great variety of other books collected for their map content such as geographies and travel guidebooks.
The Cartes Marines Map Collection details French colonial interests throughout the world, and is comprised of about maps dated ca. The Franco Novacco Map Collection includes over maps printed in Italy during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, one of the strongest such collections in the world. See also the Novacco checklist and shelf lists in the map reading room. The Johan Gabriel Sack Map Collection comprises over 1, national and regional maps of Europe dating from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, mostly published in France, the Netherlands, and Germany.
On the verso is a smaller "junior" road map of Pennsylvania; and also some small maps of New York cities. It is possible separate road maps were issued for both Pennsylvania and New York in Apparently Gousha underbid Rand McNally in in order to get their business going. Roads are marked with both 'old' state and modern US route numbers.
The Gousha Map Image can be compared to the other designs. Both Gousha and Rand McNally used a coding system with the year code printed on the bottom margin of the map.
This code allows dating of many road maps that are otherwise undated. These codes can be found at the Road Map Collectors Association website.
Location & Availability for: Dating Rand and Gousha maps
Gulf used various versions of the 'car racing up a hill' motif on its covers up to This map is undated, but uses both old state and modern US route numbers.
Also, the graphics indicate a map. The Bradford refinery figured prominently on early Kendall maps. In it reached a th anniversary and is the oldest continuously operating refinery in the United States; now under different ownership, of course. The map includes New Jersey and northern Maryland and Delaware with a map of the northeast on the verso. It is undated but has text with the date; also it uses both old state and modern US route numbers. The map includes Delaware. There is also a very small map of Delaware.
Through the wear and tear, the cover shows five forms of motorized transportation. The map is coded "B" for the second Gousha map. Half the map shows Pennsylvania and the other half shows New York.
Cartography – Special Map Collections and Strengths | Newberry
Here is the western Pennsylvania Map Image. This is a Pittsburgh version which indicates there was also a Philadelphia version. This map is undated but appears to be the map by comparison with the and maps. The verso has a map of the northeast. This copy is rather dirty.
The Pennsylvania map covers only half of the sheet, the verso has a full sheet map of the northeast. This map is undated but uses modern route numbers and, by comparison, is the map. A map from Esso specifically for Pennsylvania has not been seen, although one for New Jersey was seen. Socony apparently used the name Metro for its gas and Mobil for its oil.